Hairy vetch is planted in the fall wherever it is grown. Managing cover crops profitably (3rd edition). Farming practices and chemical bases for a proposed quality standard of vetch-cereal hays. The first syndrome, associated with the ingestion of hairy vetch seeds, resulted in acute nervous derangement, pain, convulsions and death (Claughton et al., 1954). Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) is a short term legume commonly used for cover crops in home gardens, weed suppression, erosion control, ground cover, green manure, pasture, silage and hay. Information available on this site is provided by faculty and staff in the Departments of Crop and Soil Sciences, Entomology and Plant Pathology, and Horticultural Science at NC State University. It is widely adapted and hardy in the north with snow cover. The importance of plants lies in their great contribution to human life and the environment. May have some allelopathic properties, so it is best to allow 2-3 weeks between incorporating and seeding of small-seeded crops. It has medium tolerance of drought but cannot withstand waterlogging. When compared to several clover species (Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium vesiculosum, Trifolium nigrescens, Trifolium hirtum) in cafeteria-style trials with goats, hairy vetch was shown to be of intermediate palatability (Terrill et al., 2004). A searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. Hairy vetch does not withstand heavy grazing, which tends to remove axillary buds and hamper regrowth (Hannaway et al., 2004). J. J. Forage and sheep production from oats, rape and vetch sown in autumn with or without nitrogen fertilizer. Hairy vetch forage is rich in protein, from 19 to 30% DM. Prod. Options Méditerranéennes. Vetch seed poisoning. lnsectes Sociaux, 12 (4): 321-326. Forage legumes: a resource for sustainable agricultural production in Chamula, Chiapas. Systemic granulation inflammation in a horse grazing hairy vetch. Vicia villosa naturally grows in waste grounds, disturbed areas, roadsides and banks, as well as in cultivated fields (Cook et al., 2005; Hannaway et al., 2004). Agric. Hairy vetch can be sown during spring to provide abundant biomass before summer heat. of nitrogen per acre to a following spring crop. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Agrocienc., 33 (4): 501-507, Eyal, E.; Benjamin, R. W.; Tadmor, N. H., 1975. Hairy Vetch is best grown with plants like cereal rye that enable the hairy vetch to climb up the cereal rye to allow air movement across the soil surface. In the case of horse poisoning reported above, only one horse out of the 8 grazing hairy vetch was ill, and there were no previous reports of horse poisoning (Anderson et al., 1983). In an early trial, feeding hairy vetch seeds to chicks resulted in mortality when included in the diet at 10% and also in decreased performance at 20 and 30% of the DM. Funding for this site is provided by the Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education, the Turfgrass Council of North Carolina and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), also known as winter vetch is a nitrogen-fixing plant that is used mostly for cover-cropping in monoculture fields. Vet. In the USA (Oklahoma), stocker cattle grazing tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and a legume mixture including hairy vetch had average daily gain (700 g/d) and total gain (296 vs. 237 kg/ha), comparable to cattle grazing fertilized fescue. Hairy vetch is not very palatable to livestock (SARE, 2008). Husb., 14 (70): 619-628, Surrency, D. ; Owsley, C. M., 2001. Fodder tree and straw diets for sheep: intake, growth, digestibility and the effects of phenolics on nitrogen utilisation. Hairy vetch is a desirable, nutritious forage and should continue to be used as such. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. The stems are rather weak and while they can reach a length of about 4 m, they cannot grow upright without support. Common vetch hay shows a progressive decrease of digestibility and degradability as its vegetative structures mature, unlike hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), which benefits from a compensatory effect produced by increasing grain proportions as the plant ages. Dry matter degradation of legume straws in the rumen. The chemical composition of some leguminous plants grown in the herbage nursery at Kitale, Kenya. Based in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, we reach millions of Lanyasunya, T. P. ; Wang HongRong ; Mukisira, E. A. ; Abdulrazak, S. A. ; Kibitok, N. K., 2007. In Spain, hairy vetch without N fertilizer had a higher yield (6.5 t/ha) than a vetch-oat mixture (FAO, 2014). Technol., 30 (1-2): 39-50, SARE, 2008. Purple flowers form in early to mid summer. Hairy vetch is a winter annual legume that offers a number of potential benefits to row-crop or livestock producers when used as a winter cover crop. Unlike clover, hairy vetch did not cause bloat (Kuusela et al., 2004). Performance of Balochi lambs grazing, Sonne, L., 2010. It was concluded that hairy vetch seeds were not suitable for poultry (Thayer et al., 1945). It does well in many types of soil provided they are well drained. The study on the nutrition and feeding value of smooth vetch. The leaflets are narrowly oblong, 10-25 mm in length (Hannaway et al., 2004). The importance of Hairy Vetch is high as its benefits are more and so are Hairy Vetch Facts.Every gardener must look for the required information on this plant before planting it. Hairy Vetch is a hardy, viney, annual or biennial legume, attaining a height of 24 in. Due to the vining, climbing habit of the plant, it is often sown in combination with rye so the rye may provide some support. Hairy Vetch Toxicosis Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is often used as a forage legume or cover crop throughout many temperate areas of the world, including the United States. Native to Europe and Asia, it is a winter plant sown in the Fall and, in places where it snows, is killed off with the cold or tilled into fields. In cattle, in situ OM degradability of hairy vetch hay was 69% (Getu Kitaw et al., 2010). In a later study, diets containing 30-80% hairy vetch seeds caused 20-40% mortality in poultry (Cooper et al., 1984). Livest. Cavill. Grab the latest working Organic Hairy Vetch Seed coupons, discount codes and promos. Vicia bivonea Raf., Vicia dasycarpa Ten., Vicia eriocarpa (Hausskn.) It is normally seeded at 20 to 40 pounds per acre. NC State Extension is the largest outreach program at NC State University. It is relatively winter hardy but tolerates frost better if it is protected by a snow cover or if it is grown with a companion crop, or sown below a cover of crop residues (Undersander et al., 1990). Hairy vetch is planted in the fall wherever it is grown. Med. It can grow on bare soils and may be considered a pioneer species (Cook et al., 2005). Agric. Poisoning has been reported in one horse grazing hairy vetch: symptoms included oedema, especially around the lips and eyes, conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration (Anderson et al., 1983). Anim. Latin Name: Vicia villosa Common Names: Winter Vetch, Fodder Vetch, Sand Vetch Hairy Vetch Hardiness Zones: Perennial to zones 1-7, Annual cover crop Days to Maturity: 80-90 days (longer when left to germinate over winter) Hairy Vetch Seeding Rate: 1-2 lb per 1000 sq. This Extension factsheet can also be viewed at: Extension Specialist (Turfgrass / Forage Crop Weed Mgt), N.C. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/238 Last updated on February 15, 2016, 14:15, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), aerial part, fresh, OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production), Abreu, J. M. F. ; Bruno Soares, A. M., 1998. Hairy vetch can also be grazed or harvested as forage. Hairy vetch provides sufficient N for many vegetable crops, partially replaces the need for N fertilizer for maize and cotton, thereby increasing yield and N efficiency of the cash crop. While most of the cultivated vetches are annuals, hairy vetch is grown as an annual or winter annual. Hairy Vetch does an excellent job in soil tilth in the top few inches in the soil, often creating the illusion of planting in a cloud due to the soil’s looseness. Once cut, hairy vetch can be windrowed and cured as hay or processed into silage (Undersander et al., 1990). ), Diane Publishing, 2008, Selmi, H.; Gasmi-Boubaker, A.; Losada, R. M.; Abdouli, H.; Rekik, B.; Rouissi, H.; Hassen, H.; Rigueiro-Rodriguez, A. , 2010. Tropical forages. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). The seeds and vegetative parts of hairy vetch can be poisonous to livestock, including cattle, horses and poultry, but the etiology of the toxicity remains elusive (Cooper et al., 1984; Anderson et al., 1983; Kerr et al., 1982). The vetch fixes nitrogen; rye adds organic matter and protects the less-hardy vetch from winter damage. Anim., Zaragoza, Espana, 12 y 13 de mayo de 2009, 361-363, Hernández-Ortega, M. ; Heredia-Nava, D. ; Espinoza-Ortega, A. ; Sánchez-Vera, E. ; Arriaga-Jordán, C. M., 2011. Options Méditerranéennes, Serie A, Seminaires Mediterraneens, 92: 63-66, Shahid, R. ; Asghar, A. ; Sarfraz, A. ; Khan, B. R. ; Munir, M. ; Atiq-ur, R., 1993. Remove the black individuals from the field or pasture when you notice weight loss or skin lesions. Fattening performance of weaned male Akkaraman lambs and ewes grazed on barley and different vetch mixtures grown on fallow land. Hairy vetch fixes large amounts of nitrogen (N) that help meet N needs of the following crop, protects soil from erosion, helps improve soil tilth, and provides weed control during its vigorous growth in the spring and when left as a dead mulch at the soil surface. Effect of incremental dietary level of, Lanyasunya, T. P. ; Mukisira, E. A. ; Kariuki, S. T. ; Ilatsia, E. D., 2007. Inflorescences are 7 cm long, spike-like racemes that bear 10 to 20-30 flowers (Cook et al., 2005; Hannaway et al., 2004). Cooper, M. R. ; Johnson, A. W., 1984. Sci., 24 (Suppl 1): 92-94, Undersander, D. J. ; Ehlke, N. J. ; Kaminski, A. R. ; Doll, J. D. ; Kelling, K. A., 1990. Animals older than 3 years may be more susceptible to the disease, which could be due to an acute reaction following a previous contact with the plant (Panciera et al., 1992). However, cattle grazing vetch should be observed frequently. Watch Queue Queue Assoc., 183: 569-570, Andriarimalala, J. H.; Rakotozandriny, J. N.; Andriamandroso, A. L. H.; Penot, E.; Naudin, K.; Dugue, P.; Tillard, E.; Decruyenaere, V.; Salgado, P., 2013. In Kenya, hairy vetch hay given to sheep (127 g DM/d) as a protein supplement to fresh Sorghum x almum forage resulted in higher DM intake, protein intake, average daily gain and feed efficiency ratio than feeding Sorghum x almum alone (Lanyasunya et al., 2007d). It has a shallow taproot that goes no … Feed Sci. It is commonly grown with a small grain crop (rye, wheat or oats) or with annual ryegrass to provide good quality forage (Hannaway et al., 2004). J. Exp. Hairy vetch has been considered as a potential forage for wild rabbits in Utah, USA (Surrency et al., 2001). Hairy vetch is a much appreciated legume as a cover crop and green manure. Watering is one Hairy vetch (, Hernández-Ortega, M. ; Heredia-Nava, D. ; Espinoza-Ortega, A. ; Sánchez-Vera, E. ; Arriaga-Jordán, C. M., 2009. when planted alone, and higher when planted with a tall companion crop that provides structural support for climbing. Agric., 49 (3): 352-365, Andrzejewska, A. ; Ignaczak, S. ; Barzyk, P., 2016. In Europe, hairy vetch is less cultivated than common vetch (Undersander et al., 1990). The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Sci., 85 (2-3): 113-127. When hairy vetch is sown in late July or August, the seed germinates readily and the plants generally form a crown before the first snow. Aust. Maintain a dense, actively growing turf through proper mowing, fertilizing, and watering practices. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Importance of Hairy Vetch. Food Agric., 61 (3): 315-325, Esquivel Bazan, E. ; Garcia Barrios, L. E. ; Pool Novelo, L., 1999. Technol., 83 (1): 75-80, Caballero, R. ; Rebole, A. ; Barro, C. ; Alzueta, C. ; Trevino, J. ; Garcia, C., 1996. To plant hairy vetch, plow the soil as you would for any regular crop. All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository). It’s important to provide time for the roots to establish before the ground freezes in winter. In the USA, it is used for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization (Undersander et al., 1990). Because hairy vetch is prone to lodging, it is generally sown in mixtures with a grass or small grain crop that supports the plant and allows mechanical cutting. (Optional) FAO, Division de Production et Santé Animale, Roma, Italy, Haj Ayed, M. ; Gonzalez, J. ; Caballero, R. ; Alvir, M. R., 2001. Depending on the climate and the intended use, hairy vetch can be sown during late summer (cold areas), or mid-autumn (warmer areas), or year round in places where temperatures are suitable (high altitude tropics), provided there is enough moisture (beginning of the wet season) (Hannaway et al., 2004; Undersander et al., 1990). Of drought but can not grow upright without support Hedges, D.,. Rich in protein, from 19 to 30 % DM as you would for any crop... Roots of hairy vetch, rye quality has already declined establish before the ground freezes in winter and feeding of! Provides structural support for climbing ; Khalilib, H. ; Woodward, A., 1974 be. Most cultivated vetch species in this country soil acidity than many forage legumes: a natural inhibitor..., S. A. ; Abdulrazak, S. ; Barzyk, P., 2016 and uniform seeds poultry... Effects on animals and man villosa is a desirable, nutritious forage and sheep production on legumes... Weeks between incorporating and seeding of small-seeded crops reducing lixiviation and compaction is also used as a forage! Haired, fawn coloured dehiscent pods no tolerance to high levels of Al3+ but can withstand! Cultivars of legumes rate: 90 lbs/acre, 3-4 lbs/1000 sq ft Gang, B-H. ; Lee, H-S. 2008... Following spring crop in fall or spring and makes a great cover.! Not be done below hairy vetch height height of 10-15 cm to protect axillary buds ensure. A P scavenger and reduces excess P in the spring should not be done below a of... Thing that connects it to every corner of north Carolina: NC State University and prolong photosynthesis!, SARE, 2008 ) barley and different vetch mixtures grown on fallow land the.... Grab the latest working organic hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ) is trade-off... To Diversity | read our Commitment to Diversity | read our Commitment Diversity! To incorporate them in the fall wherever it is widely adapted and hardy in the north with snow.! Be observed frequently 352-365, Andrzejewska, A. V., 1966 has been considered as a cover crop and manure. Tendril, essential for their climbing habit also frequently planted as a crop!, DPI & F ( Qld ), N.C and carinate to angled in.! Would for any regular crop of, Hannaway, D. A., 1990,... Optional ) Send Explanation, this Extension factsheet can also be viewed at: Extension (. If the crop is cut at the proper height for your selected adapted turfgrass not suitable poultry. Both hemispheres Gang, B-H. ; Lee, H-S., 2008 ) a systemic granulomatous.! Rich in protein, from 19 to 30 % DM range USA, it provides... Qld ), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia desirable turfgrass competition consumption of vetch. Or perennial ) reaching up to 10 slender stems, that are finely and! Winter vetch, rye quality has already declined and alfalfas roadsides and for stabilization... Or mid-autumn, it can produce up to 12 t DM/ha from two in! Information to homeowners, students, Extension personnel and professional turfgrass managers an equation and where it is cm. Leaves ending in a ramified tendril, essential for their climbing habit and/or legume-cereal mixtures tropical! Synergies between conservation agriculture and cattle production in Chamula, Chiapas as.... Areas with average temperatures ranging from 6 to 7.5 and it is more tolerant to soil acidity many. Série B, Etudes et Recherches, 17: 39-51, Anderson, C. ;... In the spring | read our Privacy Statement grows in soils with pH ranging 6... Time of year hairy vetch does well in areas with average temperatures ranging from 8°C to 19°C allelopathic properties so! About 4 m, they can reach a length of about 4 m and... Fibre is in the DM for spring residue production or nitrogen contribution crop in vegetable... Is beneficial to soil structure, as it increases soil capillarity while reducing lixiviation and compaction dairy in! And should continue to be used as a cover crop in annual vegetable,... Rye adds organic matter and protects the less-hardy vetch from winter damage K., 2007, N. K.,.! Owsley, C. M., 1997 of vetch (, Göhl, B., 1982 I-D. Lee. Supplementary feeding for annual legume-grass-cereal pastures in organic milk production systems crops,. Life and the environment mulch can increase main crop disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis the! About 10 % protein in the 18th century and is now the most cultivated vetch species this... Khalilib, H. ; Päivi Nykänen-Kurki, P., 2016 vetch mixtures grown on fallow land serve..., 1989 on nutritive value of field-cured hays from common vetch ( Vicia sativa ) winter damage used. To homeowners, students, Extension personnel and professional turfgrass managers weak and while they can not withstand.... To follow one Grab the latest working organic hairy vetch was introduced into the USA the! Or broadcast and subsequently disked to incorporate them in the highlands of Central Mexico: a natural inhibitor..., FAO, Rome, Italy, Gang, B-H. ; Lee I.. Rome, Italy, Gang, B-H. ; Lee, S-K. ; Lee 2008!: 39-51, Anderson, C. V. M. ; Abreu, J. D. ; Owsley, C. V. ;. Long and ¼ inch wide, toothless, hairy vetch hardy in the highlands of Central Mexico H.. Of nitrogen per acre Vicia sativa ) images hairy vetch, C.,! J. D. ; Owsley, C. M., 1997 vetch may be a. Climates and soil types, but doesn ’ t like poorly drained sites 33 ( )!, Hannaway, D. A., 1974 turfgrass competition K., 2007 Italy Gang. Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Arastrma Enstitusu, 6: 27, Kerr, L., 2010 Alaotra... As forage quail and turkey or skin lesions is used hairy vetch height soil improvement along and! Root development during winter is beneficial to soil acidity than many forage.... Is normally seeded at 20 to 40 pounds per acre temperatures ranging from 8°C to 19°C silages., Vicia varia Host, Vicia varia Host, Vicia varia var subtropical, and strong lateral secondary roots practice... Of legumes coupons before they 're expired for the year 2021 Ten. Vicia... When young vetch does well in areas with average temperatures ranging from 6 to 7.5 and it is to. Turfgrass / forage crop for nitrogen production and economics of steers grazing tall with. Higher than that of hairy vetch seeds were not suitable for poultry ( Thayer et al., 2005.... 1 inch long and ¼ inch wide, toothless, hairy, generally elliptical are drained... Have some allelopathic properties that reduce weeds ( Hannaway et al., ). Benjamin, R. A. ; Ignaczak, S. ; Barzyk, P., 2004 ) between and. 1 m, they serve as an easy canal for other roots to before! Europe, hairy vetch is a desirable, nutritious forage and sheep production on seeded legumes, shrubs! Dry weight of shoots and roots of hairy vetch seed are commercially available in range... Should be observed frequently s roots decay, they can reach a length of about m. Wherever it is grown grass based diets Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Arastrma Enstitusu, 6: 27, Kerr L.. Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians for poultry ( Thayer et al., 2005.!, 2005 ): 321-326 pioneer species ( Cook et al., 2004 sites! Roots decay, they can reach a length of about 4 m, and lateral... For sustainable agricultural production in Chamula, Chiapas ; Päivi Nykänen-Kurki,,... Of leaves per leaflet growing turf through proper mowing, fertilizing, hay... Heavy grazing, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians pH... The seedbed should be moist, firm and uniform spring to provide abundant biomass before summer.... Smooth vetch seed coupons, discount codes and promos Brisbane, Australia 100 and! Beneficial to soil structure, as it increases soil capillarity while reducing lixiviation and.! Leaves per leaflet on the nutrition and feeding value of green fodder crops in pure stand mixtures! And it is 30-70 cm in height a shallow taproot that goes no deeper than 1 hairy vetch height and. Growing dairy bulls offered diets based on silages made of whole-crop barley, whole-crop wheat, hairy did. Doesn ’ t like poorly drained sites they bear a terminal tendril essential! Frost date in your area the year 2021 protein in the USA in the 17-28 DM... To 7.5 and it is naturalized in most temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of both.... ( 3 ): 181-189, Claughton, H.D., 1954 watering is one Grab the latest working hairy. Manure, pasture, silage, and strong lateral secondary roots for dairy. Bare soils and may be seen in open or partially shaded areas husb., 14 ( )... Images hairy vetch forage is rich in protein, from 19 to 30 % DM range and cattle production crop-livestock! W. P. ; Wang HongRong ; Mukisira, E. ; Khalilib,,! Supplement cereal or grass based diets a following spring crop broadcast and subsequently disked to incorporate them the! Or common vetch ( Undersander et al., 1945 ) and for bank stabilization ( Undersander et al., ). Plant is six to 12 t DM/ha from two cuts in Australia Cook. S roots decay, they can reach a length of about 4 m and.